Ernst is a physician and an academic, and his impressive credentials deserve a mention. A German by birth, he earned a medical degree and practiced in a setting where SCAM was fully embedded into conventional medicine. He was a homeopath and even worked in a homeopathic hospital. Ernst built a research team and a research program, determined to critically evaluate SCAM with good science.
His team was highly productive, conducting dozens of clinical trials and systematic reviews and compiling, over time, over 1, publications. But it was clear relatively early on that:. Realizing the vast gap between popular perceptions about the efficacy of SCAM and the reality, Ernst broadened his publishing targets from academic publications for health professional to eventually, consumer books like Trick or Treatment. Ernst prefers science over wishful thinking, and was surprised to find that SCAM enthusiasts felt otherwise. Ernst realized this early on in academic posting at Exeter:.
On short notice, I had accepted an invitation to address this meeting packed with about proponents of alternative medicine. I felt that their enthusiasm and passion were charming but, no matter whom I talked to, there seemed to be little or no understanding of the role of science in all this. It felt a bit as though I had landed on a different planet.
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The delegates passionately wanted to promote alternative medicine, while I, with equal passion and conviction, wanted to conduct good science. The two aims were profoundly different. Nevertheless, I managed to convince myself that they were not irreconcilable, and that we would manage to combine our passions and create something worthwhile, perhaps even groundbreaking. During my short speech, I summarized my own history as a physician and a scientist and outlined what I intended to do in my new post—nothing concrete yet, merely the general gist. Science, I pointed out, generates progress through asking critical questions and through testing hypotheses.
Alternative medicine would either be shown by good science to be of value, or it would turn out to be little more than a passing fad. The endowment of the Laing chair represented an important mile-stone on the way towards the impartial evaluation of alternative medicine, and surely this would be in the best interest of all parties concerned.
My audience, however, was not impressed. Amma therapy schools combine the principles of Oriental medicine for deep tissue manipulation with the application of pressure, friction, and touch to specific joints, energy channels, muscles, ligaments, and joints. Amma therapy may also include dietary, detoxification, herbs and supplements, therapeutic exercise, stress, and emotional and spiritual counseling.
The chief diagnostic technique of the amma therapist is palpation with the hands and fingers in areas where there is dysfunction or pain. Palpation may be performed through clothing. The Delta Society, which is an organization that teaches how to use therapy dogs, may be contacted at or www. For example, antimicrobial properties are attributed to the Native American herbs echinacea, goldenseal, osha, Lomatium dissectum, usnea, and saw palmetto. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, as of , drugs prescribed for sufferers of anxiety rank among the 20 drugs most commonly prescribed overall.
Some of the most common symptoms of anxiety are hyperventilation, chest tightness or pain, fainting, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, clammy skin, flushing, dry mouth, loss of appetite, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, insomnia, and a host of individualized manifestations of stress. Anxiety may also occur as a result of a physical problem, such as metabolic imbalance, hyperthyroidism, prostaglandin deficiency, poor nerve health, smoking, any catastrophic illness such as cancer, and many other diseases, or it may be secondary to posttraumatic stress, obsessive-compulsive, and other psychological disorders.
In the field of complementary medicine, the mind-body connection is taken into consideration when treating an individual presenting signs of panic attack or another stress-related condition regardless of its origin. Relaxation techniques; meditation; Ayurveda; massage; aromatherapy particularly with essential oils of peppermint, lavender, geranium, bergamot, cinnamon, etc. Flower remedies include elm, aspen, red chestnut, Rescue Remedy, and Emergency Essence. Rector-Page, N. Allegedly, bee venom injected into the joints eases the pain and inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis, as some patients have reported.
Royal jelly, secreted by the salivary glands of worker bees to nourish the queen bee, is a source of vitamins, amino acids, minerals, and testosterone. Bee pollen that is collected by bees contains vitamins, minerals, sugar, protein, and fat; its advocates believe it fights infection and inhibits aging. Raw honey is allegedly a source of B-complex vitamins, glucose, several other vitamins, and propolis, the substance bees collect from buds or tree bark and then use to seal the interior of their hives ; it is a combination of wax, resin, balsam oil, and propolis.
Rich in bioflavonoids, bee propolis has antibiotic and bactericidal properties and may be used topically on wounds. As with any bee product, individuals must be cautioned that an allergic reaction may occur, and those who have cardiac problems, tuberculosis, or other infections or who are pregnant should probably avoid using bee remedies. Among the types of applications are hot or cold, dry or moist compresses. Compresses have long been used to draw out waste and its residue, such as the contents of cysts or abscesses, through the skin, an organ of elimination and protection.
Herbs may be applied to compresses; for example, cayenne, ginger, and lobelia may be added to a hot compress. Green clay compresses may be used for growths. Alternating hot and cold compresses is usually recommended.
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Herbal wraps are also healing applications and quick body-cleansing or conditioning techniques, which are reported to elasticize, tone, alkalize, and release body wastes. Spa herbal wraps may involve the use of seaweed or another natural substance with therapeutic qualities for balancing body minerals and enhancing metabolism.
Other types of healing applications include mud, oatmeal, seaweed, and other baths. The ancient Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians recognized the beneficial effects of pleasantly scented baths, massages, steam inhalations, diffusers, and vaporizers. Hippocrates, the Greek known as the father of medicine, recommended aromatic fumigation for ridding Athens of the plague. Scents from essential oils were used throughout the world with some intention of a healing or therapeutic effect.
By the s, the French chemist Dr. That his hand healed completely led him to think about and experiment with the possible benefits of essential oils in general. Valnet went on in to write a Aromatherapie, Traitement des maladies par les essences des plantes Aromatherapy, treatment of illnesses by the essences of plants , and to teach other physicians about essential oils. The Italian scientists Dr. Renato Cayola and Dr. Giovanni Garri also distinguished themselves with studies on the psychological effects of essential oils in the early s, and Professor Paolo Rovesti, of the University of Milan, researched the effects and treated depressed patients with combinations of jasmine, sandalwood, orange blossom, verbena, and lemon oil.
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For treatment of anxiety disorders, he used bergamot, neroli, cypress, orange leaf, lime, rose, violet leaves, and marjoram. One contemporary physician helped a young girl with cancer to manage pain by administering a conventional pain medication accompanied by a whiff of rose oil with each dose.
Eventually the girl needed only the fragrance to feel relief from the pain. Throughout the history of psychology, it has been known that an odor sig- nificant in the memory of an individual can trigger an array of somatic and emotional reactions. In addition, essential oils invite one to appreciate the beauty and wonders of creation, providing us inner contentment. They have the ability to directly affect the brain and, from there, many psychological and physiological processes.
Some claim certain aromas can trigger glandular stimulation, thus producing either calming or energizing results. For example, lavender is said to lower blood pressure; relieve headache, depression, inflammation, burns and cuts, menstrual cramps, and insect bites; and fight bacteria. Other aromas, such as peppermint, eucalyptus, tea tree, rosemary, chamomile, thyme, tarragon, and everlasting, allegedly help one deal with all manner of ailments and discomfort, including fungal infections, congestion, gas and liver problems, allergies, insomnia, digestive problems, stress, bronchitis, arthritis, muscle and other types of injuries, and skin problems such as boils and pimples.
Aromatherapy may be administered via inhalation usually in steam , diffusion spraying into the air , massage direct application to skin , bath water, and hot and cold compresses. Essential oils, which may be poisonous, are never to be taken internally. Although aromatherapy is usually considered safe, precautions must be taken by those with asthma many oils can set off bronchial spasms or allergies, pregnant women sage, rosemary, and juniper oils may trigger uterine contraction , and infants and young children, who may be hypersensitive to a potent essential oil.
Also, the high con- 10 Aromatherapy Seminars centration of essential oils may cause a toxic overdose, skin or eye irritation, hypersensitivity to sunlight, headache, fatigue, or a paradoxical effect that is, an oil may cause a problem rather than help to relieve it. For aromatherapy organizations, see Appendix I. Aromatherapy Seminars See Appendix I. Art has been considered a valuable tool for rehabilitating those with mental or emotional illness since the s, when artists who worked in psychiatric hospitals started to recognize the powerful messages in the artwork of patients.
People of any age may participate in art therapy sessions, which are now integrated into the mainstream health delivery system and made available through local medical and health care centers. Psychiatrists have long recognized the healing attributes of creating art, and the Museum of Images from the Unconscious helps scholars as well.
Said the late British psychiatrist R. If as little children, we were enabled to find life so simple, so transparent that all the beautiful order of it were revealed to us, if we knew the rhythm of Wagner, the outline of Pericles, if color were all about us beautifully related, we should acquire this health and have the vision to translate our lives into the most perfect art of any age or generation. Siegel, M. He becomes interesting to other people. He disturbs, upsets, enlightens, and opens ways for a better understanding. Where those who are not artists are trying to close the book, he opens it and shows there are still more pages possible.
Art therapy programs, particularly for bereaved children, have cropped up in local medical centers as a service to the community and in connection with the treatment of patients with catastrophic illnesses. See also YOGA. Carmel Valley, Calif. The formula for the flush consists of ascorbate vitamin C or Ester powder with bioflavonoids, one-half teaspoon taken every 20 minutes to bowel tolerance diarrhea results. Then reduce the amount taken to just below bowel tolerance until the stool is loose, but not diarrhea which, medically, is considered to be watery. Continue for two days.
Aston-Patterning A type of bodywork, movement training, and massage geared to relieving muscle tension, pain, and stress and promoting healing from injuries.
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Developed by the dancer Judith Aston, who recovered from injuries sustained in two automobile accidents, Aston-Patterning is an extension of the deep massage therapy known as Rolfing. Aston-Patterning practitioners may also suggest that an individual make ergonomic changes in the home and workplace in order to increase comfort and relieve unconscious stress. Although the goals of Aston-Patterning are to reduce stress, speed recovery from injury, and improve muscle tone, lightness of movement, and resiliency of the joints, it may not be recommended for those with osteoporosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, any disorder characterized by brittle bones, a bleeding disorder, or cardiac, circulatory, or respiratory problems.
Nor is it recommended for those on longterm steroid or anticoagulant therapy. Some otherwise healthy people may experience fatigue and pain from the intense sessions or be emotionally resistant to the training. A competent practitioner can adjust the massage and exercises according to the age and physical status of each client. The Aston Training Center may be contacted at P. Box , Inclined Village, NV , or at Some of the major astringents are metal salts, such as ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate, and zinc oxide; alum; permanganates; and tannic acid.
In Ayurvedic medicine, astringency corresponds to one of the taste sensations; adding an astringent to a food creates a contraction that can have an effect upon hemorrhaging blood vessels or help dispel diarrhea. Sensory hallucinations may accompany an aura in paroxysmal attacks; for example, the Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh was said to suffer from epilepsy or some sort of seizure disorder which could have been linked to substance addiction and other problems , and he remembered after an attack was over that 12 auricular therapy he had seen the color yellow, an image that stayed with him a long time.
In terms of alternative medicine, Therapeutic Touch, Reiki, and other practices rely on the premise that the body is surrounded by an electromagnetic field—also called an aura—that may be manipulated by hand in order to restore, direct, and balance healing energy for general well-being. Australian Bush Flower Essences Infusions made from indigenous Australian flowers and plants that are used to strengthen the immune system and fight viruses. Originated in Berlin, Germany, in the s by the German psychiatrist and neurologist Dr. Johannes H. Schultz, autogenic training aims to help individuals deliberately control their autonomic nervous system, the part of the entire nervous system that focuses on involuntary bodily functioning—the heart, the smooth muscles, the adrenal medulla, and the salivary, gastric, and sweat glands, among other structures.
The autonomic nervous system is divided into the sympathetic, or thoracolumbar, system, connected with thoracic and lumbar portions of the spinal nerve and other nerves, and the parasympathetic system, which consists of fibers of some of the cranial nerves and the nerves connected to the sacral portion of the spine. It is the sympathetic system that responds to stressors, and the parasympathetic system that induces relaxation. Stimulation of the parasympathetic nerves produces a reduction in blood pressure, vasodilation, pupillary contraction, thin saliva, and reduced heart rate.
The techniques of autogenic training resemble self-hypnosis and meditation. The series of mental exercises, performed three times daily for 15 minutes at a time, centers on certain words or phrases that, for the individual, will produce a relaxation response. The second group, known as intentional exercises, is Ayurveda 13 geared to helping one release physical and emotional tension with activity such as crying, shouting, on punching pillows. Training sessions, private or in small groups, last an hour and continue for eight to 10 weeks.
Autogenic training has been tested in several clinical experiments and is said to be beneficial for ailments that include anxiety and panic disorder, hypertension, and other stress-related problems. Ayurveda, most commonly defined as the practice of ancient Hindu or Indian medicine, originates with the Vedas, the earliest Indian literature, dating from ca. In the Vedas are intricately described medical disorders and corresponding treatments, most of which are herbal but may also include simple surgical procedures. It is said that Vedic physicians invented prostheses—artificial limbs and eyes.
By ca. Ayurveda has recently become the subject of studies conducted by its researchers and practitioners and collaboratively by those involved in traditional Western medicine. Gerson is reported to be the only physician in the United States who holds degrees in both traditional Western medicine and Ayurveda. Projects with the National Cancer Institute include an evaluation of antitumor effects of Semicarpus anacardium an Ayurvedic phytomedicine, or plant extract.
Initial reports over the last three years indicate that the growth of certain malignancies is thwarted by semicarpus. Further study seeks to determine whether semicarpus or other Ayurvedic medicine has the direct ability to kill cancer cells. Asthma, immune diseases, and various diseases and conditions that affect women are the subjects of additional studies.
A randomized, controlled cross-over-type study of an herbal-yoga treatment regimen to treat asthma is under way at the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha Medicine, and Ayurvedic herbal treatments for perimenopausal symptoms, premenstrual syndrome, and dysmenorrhea painful menstruation are being researched at the Rosenthal Center. Ayurvedic herbal protocols are also under investigation for the treatment of hypertension, genital herpes, depression, adult-onset diabetes, obesity, uterine fibroid tumors, acne, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic constipation, and chronic fatigue syndrome.
The effect of aromatherapy and meditation on brain wave patterns is being studied through the use of electroencephalography EEG. Selected reading for additional information Lad, Dr. Twin Lakes, Wisc. Rakel, David, M. New York:W. Saunders, Sodhi, V. Pizzorno and M. Bayville, N. B potent for many years. Another method for making flower tinctures is the sun method, in which harvested blooms or parts of the plant are floated on water in a glass bowl and placed in the sunshine for three hours, after which only the remaining filtered water is added to brandy.
Daniel, and He also specified that after his death, no more essences were to be added to the 38 existing remedies for the purpose of keeping the system as simple as possible, so individuals would be able to diagnose their emotional problems and self-treat. Also, one may contact the Dr. Box 32, Woodmere, NY Bach, Edward British bacteriologist, medical doctor, and homeopathic physician born in who worked at the London Homeopathic Hospital in England and who between and set forth the seven major negative human emotions that correspond with ill-being or illness and developed remedies called nosodes, or homeopathic preparations for them from specific flowers and plants.
In tune with the homeopathic concept of vibrational healing, he discovered through his patients that grief, frustration, anxiety, fear, despair, loneliness, and uncertainty contributed significantly to their physical ailments. At his home, Mount Vernon, in Oxfordshire, now known as the Bach Centre, he noticed that the habits and characteristics of flowers and plants related to human behavior.
For example, the typical beech tree grows to approximately feet tall and its branches span approximately 80 feet. To create his remedy, he boiled leaves and twigs from the beech tree in water, let them simmer and cool thereafter, and then filtered them from the water. To that water Bach added a small amount of brandy the standard mix per flower or plant substance is 50 milliliters mL , or one-and-a-half fluid ounces, of the prepared water to mL, or three fluid ounces, of brandy. Called a tincture, this remains Bach Flower Remedies In addition to being the inspiration for several other flower remedies made in Australia, California, Europe, and elsewhere, the original remedies that are believed to employ the life force, or vibrations, of each flower to help relieve negativity of varying nature, balance energy, and thereby encourage physical and emotional healing.
The medical and homeopathic physician and author Rudolph M. The vines are covered with sharp spines. The biggest and most succulent berries always seem to be a little deeper into the tangle of brambles. You work 15 16 Bach Flower Remedies your way in edgewise so you can reach a bit further.
The long branches of the blackberry plant are wrapped all about you, and each has thorns that curve back in toward the plant. No matter which way you move, some of those thorns dig in deeper. You are stuck. The essence of the blackberry flower is used as a remedy for those who are at a point in their lives where they feel stuck— unable to find a way to move. Others believe the flower remedies and other natural medicinals may work as placebos, if they are effective at all.
The 38 essences created by Bach derive from agrimony, aspen, beech, centaury, cerato, cherry plum, chestnut bud, chicory, clematis, crab apple, elm, gentian, gorse, heather, holly, honeysuckle, hornbeam, impatiens, larch, mimulus, mustard, oak, olive, pine, red chestnut, rock rose, rock water, scleranthus, star of Bethlehem, sweet chestnut, vervain, vine, walnut, water violet, white chestnut, wild oat, wild rose, and willow.
Flower remedies do not interfere with any other treatment, do not work in a biochemical way, are not addictive or dangerous, and may be taken safely by people of all ages, including babies. They may be given to animals and plants as well. Bach tested all his remedies on himself. However, people who are alcohol-intolerant or who are recovering from alcoholism should not take flower essence remedies with the alcohol in them. Used for preservation purposes, the alcohol may be removed from the remedy by putting the diluted drops of a remedy into a boiling hot drink such as tea, so the steam can make the alcohol evaporate.
When cool, the drink may be sipped throughout the day. Essences—unlike herbal preparations, in that no actual part of the plant remains in the tincture— are to be taken until the patient feels relief and begins to notice the stimulus of his or her own healing mechanism. The most frequently used remedy, it treats feelings of panic, mental numbness, shock, terror, fear of flying, response to startling noise—any emotional state of emergency or loss of control, even trauma experienced in the past that is still disturbing.
In addition to the tincture, which can be added to any skin wash preparation, douche, or compress, Rescue Remedy is made into a cream that can be applied topically to cuts, bruises, stings, sunburn, and other injuries. Also, Rescue Remedy is used for prevention of panic, such as before a stressful activity or event, and is reported to increase healing and recovery from surgery. Baily, Philip M. Garden City Park, N. Ballentine, Rudolph M. He received his M. For 12 years he served as president of the Himalayan Institute, and for 18 years as director of its Combined Therapy Program, in which he developed models of 18 Banerjee, P.
Banerjee, P. This book was originally published in He discovered that the organs have a five- to eight-cycle-per-minute rhythm of movement relative to its position or referring to its function , and when the cycles are impaired, irritation and disease may develop. The Barral technique involves the use of light, precise mechanical force, which rebalances the organ and helps revive its normal function. Bates Method for Improving Eyesight A relaxation system geared toward restoring the natural use of the eyes and relearning to see developed by the American ophthalmologist William H.
Bates, M. Bird , which presented his theory that sight can be deliberately and naturally improved after being diminished by eyestrain, tension, and misuse of the eyes. In opposition to age-old theories that the mind and body were of a different, and therefore separate, nature, Herbert Benson, M. The potential exists for thought processes to lead both to disease and to good health. He also pointed out that psychological factors affect the conscious perception of and sensitivity to pain and pain relief, and that symptoms of certain diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and colitis are clearly at risk of being aggravated by psychological stress.
However, even then the risk versus benefit principle should be applied. You should not allow yourself to become convinced that you are sick or becoming sick. Is it not foolish to spend healthy years worried about disease that is not present and may never occur?
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Many individuals in previous generations appeared to have faith in their own health. People should strive to adopt this attitude. If you become ill, the medical profession is there to help you. There will be enough time for you to work with your physician and to learn how to adjust to an illness if it occurs. You have a right to expect to be as well as possible for as long as possible. Both are licensed acupuncturists, and Korngold is also a doctor of osteopathic medicine.
Stewart, R. Benson lives in Lexington, Massachusetts. Bhakhi enema biofeedback A series of electrodermal responses to changes in heart rate, respirations, temperature, muscle tension, perspiration, brain waves, gastric acidity, blood pressure, and other bodily functions recorded on a machine similar to an electrocardiogram. An individual is connected to sensors that pick up signals of involuntary bodily activities. At a time of stress, these signals are recorded by the machine to inform the person how the body handled that stress.
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The goal of biofeedback is to help recognize these reactions and learn to alter them through relaxation techniques. Biofeedback is useful in reducing stress as a trigger for physical disorders and disease. Patients of biofeedback are usually taught various breathing techniques as a way to overcome anxiety and other stress responses. Bikram yoga A branch of yoga characterized by performing yoga exercises and asanas in a room heated to about degrees.
Energy medicine techniques include Reiki, reflexology, shiatsu, craniosacral therapy, zone therapy, homeopathy, acupuncture, polarity, Phoenix Rising yoga therapy, and breathwork. There exist devices designed to induce relaxation by emitting light usually red light or energy waves to the brain at an adjustable frequency. This modality is also used to treat seizure activity and memory and vision problems, among other disorders.
A branch of dentistry that emphasizes the importance of tooth alignment and jaw structure, cavities as a source of other illness, nontoxic restoration materials, the impact of dental toxins, and the conservation of all healthy tooth material. Biological dentistry employs various therapies that may be categorized as bioenergetic medicine, including neural and cold laser therapy, oral acupuncture, homeopathy, mouth balancing, and nutrition.
Effective in healing wounds, reducing inflammation, and fighting bacteria, cold laser therapy draws on traditional acupuncture techniques, but with the use of laser beams instead of needles. Oral acupuncture, which involves the injection of saline solution, weak local anesthetics, or a combination of homeopathic remedies into acupoints in the mucous membrane, is used for relief of pain during dental procedures; for the treatment of neuralgia, sinusitis, allergies, and digestive disorders; and for diagnostic procedures.
Mouth balancing is a modality that diagnoses cranial structural problems that may cause illness in other parts of the body, such as headaches, shoulder 20 bitter pain, back problems, blurred vision, and temporomandibular joint TMJ syndrome. Mouth-balancing treatment includes the use of corrective orthopedic braces to be worn in the mouth. There are also blood tonics, including green drinks that are rich in chlorophyll similar in molecular composition to human hemoglobin , which is also a source of vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and other nutrients that promote optimal cell response and growth.
Green drinks are also effective as energy-boosting, anti-infective blood cleansers. A Chinese tongue map, for example, shows each region of the tongue in correlation with other organs and structures of the body. The area at the back of the tongue relates to the uro-genital organs; the midsection relates to the liver, gallbladder, and other digestive organs; just before the tip of the tongue, the lungs are represented; the tip relates to the heart. Chinese doctors also observe the color and condition of the tongue, very often keys to diagnosing a problem.
A dark coating on the tongue, for instance, indicates a toxicity in the body, and a dry, shiny tongue indicates dehydration. Face maps are popular for diagnosis in Asian medical practice. The middle portion emotion corresponds to the circulation, and the lower portion will to digestion and reproduction. Specific parts of the face—nostrils, chin, brow, lower lip, cheek, and so on—relate to specific organs that may be dysfunctional or impaired and the meridians energy channels of the body.
In turn, the physical body conditions relate to emotional and psychological constitution of an individual. Nose, pulse, and hand maps are also used by practitioners to identify disorders. One unit is equal to the width of the second joint of the thumb, and three body units is equal to the breadth of the second, third, fourth, and fifth fingers held together. Each major body segment has a certain number of body units. For example, five body units may be measured from the navel to the pubic bone, and 12 body units make up the area from the elbow crease to the wrist crease.
Boericke, William, and Dewey, W. Homeopathic physicians with M. By , there were , Thomsonian practitioners registered in America, and a decade later the Eclectic Medical Institute emerged when physicians and herbalists decided to join forces. Several schools operated in major cities throughout the country from the late 19th century and into the 20th, but patent medicines rose as competitors that crushed the finances of the Eclectics.
In Cincinnati, , the last Eclectic Medical School closed forever. Trigger points, or places on the body where painful muscle spasm occurs, may be the result of trauma or injury, repetitive motion, prenatal injury, or child or sexual abuse and may be exacerbated by the presence of disease, substance abuse, and the aging process. The method also involves performing stretches and trigger-point sessions to prevent recurrence of muscle spasm, strains, sprains, dislocations, tension headaches, migraines, temporomandibular joint TMJ syndrome, hemorrhoids, prostate muscle spasms, impotence, incontinence, arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, foot pain, leg cramps, and neck, shoulder, arm, hand, back, chest, and abdominal pain.
Bowen Method A hands-on modality designed to balance and positively affect the autonomic nervous system, developed in the s by the Australian lay healer Thomas Bowen. With the fully clothed patient lying prone on a padded table, Bowen advocated a series of moves such as pulling the skin away from a muscle or tendon, then applying gentle pressure, and eventually allowing the specific structure to spring back into its original position.
Bowen developed certain patterns for three sets of moves to treat lower back, upper back, and neck problems. Treatment sessions vary from 20 to 45 minutes. Bowen therapy is also used to provide benefit to individuals with gastrointestinal disorders, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, headaches, respiratory ailments, sports- and work-related injuries, and other conditions. Patients have reported that symptoms subsided, and that anger and depression 22 Bower, Peter were reduced, after treatments.
It was developed by Michael Nixon-Livy, who wanted to systematize the Bowen Method in order to train health professionals. Bower, Peter A medical doctor practicing in Charlottesville, Virginia, where he and his associates combine Osteopathic Manual Therapy, Pilatesbased rehabilitation, and health counseling in the medical management of neurological and musculoskeletal problems.
His focus is on the diagnosis and treatment of repetitive strain and sports injuries, myofascial pain syndromes, and nerve-entrapment syndromes. Brennan runs a school of healing in New York. Broths of onion, miso, garlic, scallion, apple, carrot, potato, and other ingredients, are geared toward balancing body pH and are alkalizing agents. Hot tonics are not broths or teas, but hot drinks made from vegetables, fruits, and spices that have energizing properties.
Tonics are meant to revitalize, clear nasal and sinus passages, provide nutrition, create body heat to ward off aches and chills, and fight a hangover. A cold and flu tonic, for example, may be made by combining garlic, cumin powder, black pepper, hot mustard powder, water, turmeric, sesame salt, fresh cilantro, and cooked split peas.
Buegel and Chernin are medical doctors. C calmative cathartic carminative caustic A substance capable of corroding or burning bodily tissue. A substance used as a tranquilizer or sedative in homeopathic and Ayurvedic medicine. A substance that relieves griping severe bowel pains and intestinal gas. A substance used as a laxative. Cayce was a photographer, gardener, Sunday School teacher, and father of two.
To date he is the subject of approximately 12 biographies and is discussed in more than other books for his ability to enter a sleeplike state, during which he gave information to individuals throughout the world who had lifethreatening illnesses, questions, or problems. Frequently he made a lifesaving diagnosis in cases that stumped the medical community.
The A. At 21, however, he entered St. Once ordained in , Father Solanus worked at Sacred Heart Parish in Yonkers, New York, mainly as doorkeeper and sacristan because he was not highly regarded for his scholarship. But the sick and troubled of the parish began to notice his gift for healing and made a point to ask for his prayers for themselves and their loved ones. Appointed to the Capuchin Friary of St. Bonaventure in Detroit, Michigan, in , he became well known and was the inspiration of the Detroit Capuchins to establish their soup kitchen, still in operation today.
He continued his ministry to the sick and the poor even after he was sent for retirement to the Friary of St. Felix in Huntington, Indiana, in When he himself became ill, he returned to Detroit, where he died July 31, Bonaventure Monastery. He reportedly had a photographic memory that enabled him to absorb, through osmosis, the content of school books while sleeping on them.
At age 21, he developed a throat malady that paralyzed his vocal cords and made him lose his voice. While under hypnosis, Cayce reportedly diagnosed his ailment and prescribed a treatment in precise, medical terms, later verified by medical investigators. After following the course of treatment, his voice returned. His remedies were holistic, often involving diet and massage.
In a homeopathic remedy, one part salt must be ground with nine parts lactose, or milk sugar, to make Natrum mur 1x x equals Researchers have voiced this view in several countries over the last few years [ 20 , 48 , 49 ]. It was even emphasized in the much-criticized recent meta-analysis of homeopathy [ 50 ]: "Clearly, rather than doing further placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy, future research efforts should focus on the nature of context effects and on the place of homoeopathy in health-care systems".
Included in this phase, and bordering on the next phase would be studies to evaluate how limited a whole package of care can be while still retaining its overall effectiveness "Occam's razor". There are many components within a CAM treatment approach, but are there any that we can eliminate and at the same time retain or improve overall treatment effectiveness?
This is the area that has received most attention and research money to date, and while it is important, it is not the starting point in our model. The methods of choice are often double-blind randomized controlled trials. It is, however, important to recognize that results from such research cannot be used to document or disprove the effectiveness of a "whole system" treatment. We want, and need, to understand the pathways and mechanisms through which treatments exercise their influence [ 52 ]. This has been and is being explored for acupuncture as an anti-emetic [ 53 ].
We must however realize that treatment outcomes, both at the system and component level, can be documented before the biologic mechanisms are understood, as has been the case for several non-surgical conventional therapies. The most prominent example from conventional medicine is probably aspirin. The anti-inflammatory and pain-killing properties of aspirin were discovered long before it became known that aspirin influences prostaglandin synthesis. CAM is not simply a new array of therapeutic tools that need to be evaluated; it presents other ways to think about disease and therapeutics, and consequently new ideas about how research should be strategically developed.
In this article we have suggested two ways of taking this forward. First, the absence of statutory and financial gatekeepers for CAM presents several issues that need to be considered closely. Secondly, the structure of CAM research should be different, in subtle but important ways. We have provided some suggestions as to how this alternative research strategy could be structured keeping in mind that the ultimate goal for all approaches to treatment is to provide effective medical interventions at reasonable cost and without harm.
VF and SG conceived of the study. VF drafted the manuscript. All authors have contributed to the paper by offering textual elements and decisive references, contributing to the critical discussion that fostered the article, and a critical reading. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Feb Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Corresponding author. Received Sep 7; Accepted Feb This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background To explore the strengths and weaknesses of conventional biomedical research strategies and methods as applied to complementary and alternative medicine CAM , and to suggest a new research framework for assessing these treatment modalities. Discussion There appears to be a gap between published studies showing little or no efficacy of CAM, and reports of substantial clinical benefit from patients and CAM practitioners.
These phases comprise: 1. Context, paradigms, philosophical understanding and utilization 2. Safety status 3. Comparative effectiveness. Component efficacy 5. Biological mechanisms.
- The Encyclopedia of Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
- Voleur de lumière (French Edition).
- The Birdman Cycle;
Summary Using the proposed strategy will generate evidence relevant to clinical practice, while acknowledging the absence of regulatory and financial gatekeepers for CAM. Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine CAM has increased considerably in Western industrialized nations over the last 25 years.
The purpose of this paper is therefore to 1. Explore the strengths and weaknesses of conventional biomedical research strategies and methods as applied to CAM 2. Discussion Gatekeeping and regulating the use of CAM interventions A majority of CAM research to date has used the research strategy employed and developed by clinical pharmacologists to document, in a prescribed sequential pattern, the quality, dose, safety, efficacy, and eventual effectiveness of a drug prior to its general release.
Why is a different research strategy needed? A suggested research strategy The most important unique characteristics of CAM are the absence of gatekeepers and the complexity of individually tailored treatments. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Phase1: Context, paradigms, philosophical understanding and utilization What is going on? Phase 2: Safety status Is it safe? Phase 3: Comparative effectiveness What is the system effectiveness? Phase 4: Component efficacy What is the efficacy of a specific component of the therapy?
Phase 5: Biological mechanisms How can treatment outcomes be explained biologically? Summary CAM is not simply a new array of therapeutic tools that need to be evaluated; it presents other ways to think about disease and therapeutics, and consequently new ideas about how research should be strategically developed.
Competing interests The author s declare that they have no competing interests. Authors' contributions VF and SG conceived of the study. New England Journal of Medicine. Trends in alternative medicine use in the United States, - Results of a follow-up national survey. Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association. Empowering the cancer patient or controlling the tumor? A qualitative study of how cancer patients experience consultations with complementary and alternative medicine practitioners and physicians, respectively.
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